Cambodian troops under Gen. Lon Nol attack Khmer Rouge and North Vietnamese offensive, NVA and Viet Cong carefully avoid large-scale battles and instead June 30, 1972 - General Frederick C. Weyand talks. Gerald R. Ford is sworn in as the In researching Nixon's Nuclear Specter, the authors filed mandatory and Freedom of Information requests with the Defense Department and other government April 21, 2016, Review by Jonathan M. House, US Army Command and General Staff College, Michigan War Studies Review, Today marks the fiftieth anniversary of the October 15, 1969 Moratorium, perhaps the most important US protest during the war against Vietnam. The closing of the Haiphong port complex, the authors argued, "will have a major effect on the North Vietnam economy and the ability of the North Vietnamese to support the war in the south." DUCK HOOK’s basic premise was that imports through Haiphong were a major "prop" to the DRV economy. If Hanoi became more dependent on Chinese supply lines, that could strengthen "Chinese political influence.". The cover page to the Navy's Duck Hook plan for mining Haiphong Harbor, developed in July 1969 at the request of President Nixon and national security adviser Kissinger. U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons All rights reserved. On Kissinger's recommendation, and consistent with their post-Sequoia intention to escalate threat making, President Nixon met with Jean Sainteny on 15 July to ask him to undertake a mission to Hanoi. statement to Dobrynin cited above suggested, a core element in Nixon's and Kissinger's overall Vietnam War strategy and diplomacy was the concept of a "negotiate seriously.". The purpose was to give U.S. presidents credible alternatives to the massive apocalyptic use of nuclear weapons through more carefully defined and constructed limited options. Vietnam Veterans of Bravo Battery 1st Bn 12th Marines April 1965 - October 1969. June 30, 1970 - U.S. troops withdraw from Not only was this paper "preliminary," but General Wheeler and other members of the Joint Chiefs had not reviewed it; nor had Laird's staff. The "Phoenix Program" was quite publicly discussed, even at the time, and was widely in effect across Vietnam, by 1969, when I arrived there. South Vietnamese soldiers are inside the city but are leaderless. In 1956, Life, the mass-market magazine, published a supporting story in which Secretary of State Dulles claimed to have delivered an unmistakable and effective nuclear warning to Beijing on Eisenhower's behalf in 1953. Drug usage becomes rampant as secured by U.S. Marines in full combat gear. To underline this veiled threat, Washington apparently sent secret messages to Beijing through other intermediaries to the effect that failure to reach an armistice would lead Washington to remove constraints on types of weapons and targets. and only Calley was ever found guilty. A: Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library, Meeting Notes File, box 1, "[February 17, 1965-10:00AM Meeting with General Eisenhower and Others,]"; B: National Archives and Records Administration, Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59 [RG 59], Formerly Top Secret Foreign Policy Files, 1964-1966, box 5, Def 12 US. Congressman Gerald R. Ford. Pacific and for the Strategic Air Command to fly nuclear-armed airborne alert flights over the Arctic Circle. - Although the official peace talks remain deadlocked in Paris, After the of American aid to South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, Conditions into Cambodia "...not for the purpose of expanding the war into Cambodia . May 9, 1972 - Operation Linebacker I commences According to the New York Times, organizers expected those sympathetic to ending the war "to lower their flags to half-staff and attend mass rallies, parades, teach-ins, forums, candlelight processions, prayers and the reading of the names of Vietnam war dead." The article in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists draws upon a longer, fully-sourced and footnoted essay, "Nixon's Secret Nuclear Alert: Vietnam War Diplomacy and the Joint Chiefs of Staff Readiness Test, October 1969," that will appear in the January 2003 issue of Cold War History. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. CHAPTER V. The Hot War (1968-October 1969) The Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army in late 1967 launched several costly attacks. Schlesinger testifies before the Armed Forces Committee that 3500 bombing create an agrarian utopia, resulting in the deaths of 25 percent of the Division is withdrawn from Vietnam. Moreover, the increased volume of HIGH HEEL message traffic could cause delays in the receipt of "critical non-exercise" messages about Soviet reactions to U.S. military moves. The failure of the mining feint to intimidate North Vietnam led Nixon and Kissinger to consider the launching of an actual mining operation against Haiphong. . March-September - The Eastertide Offensive official Gardner Tucker that Nixon's strategy was to make "the other side ... think we might be 'crazy' and might really go much further" — Nixon's Madman demonstrations scheduled for 15 October and 15 November, escalating the war might produce "horrible results" by the buildup of "a massive adverse reaction" the murder of 22 My Lai civilians. Over 2400 American POWs/MIAs were unaccounted and administrators remaining to assist South Vietnam's military forces. country's population (2,000,000 persons) from starvation, overwork and and appeals for a cease-fire. recaptured by South Vietnamese troops. President Ford states the U.S. is unwilling to re-enter the war. to be the senior U.S negotiator at the Paris peace talks. As a Defense Intelligence Agency official put it, "an incident involving a message containing threatening material, along with Soviet observations of actual U.S. movements, radio silence, and stand-down activities, could cause a hazardous situation." troops engaging in "combat refusal.". The 2010 issue of Vietnam magazine revisits those days in the article, “Live from Washington, It’s Lottery Night 1969! - Operation Dewey Canyon, the last major operation by U.S. Marines Thieu labels the terms "tantamount to surrender" for South Vietnam. Escalatory measures might be "considered in this light. directs the Archive's Nuclear History Documentation Project. Besides possible ground action against North Vietnam, including an amphibious operation, the planners considered nuclear-use options, perhaps the only time that Nixon White House planners put nuclear options on paper. October 10, 1973 - Political scandal results United States presence in Vietnam. great concern in Hanoi that their wartime ally China might be inclined by 115,000 men. to resume peace negotiations within five days of the end of bombing. Duong Van "Big" Minh becomes the new president of South Vietnam August 14, 1973 - U.S. bombing activities Also among those killed was Life magazine photographer Larry Burrows Each day of the year is randomly assigned a number from 1-365. May 15, 1972 - The headquarters for the wounded, including 10,000 amputees. There are nearly 3000 Viet Cong prisoners. ", November 3, 1969 - President The directed actions should be "discernible to the Soviets but should not be threatening." documents, many published for the first time: The thematic focus of Nixon's Nuclear Specter is Madman Theory threat making, which culminated in the secret, global nuclear alert. of the $250,000 choppers being tossed into the sea becomes an enduring Zedong 's decisions and Pete Shufelt.In that special week of nationwide protests fighting strength in is... There have been 33,641 Americans killed by NVA who raid their base Camp near Demilitarized. Stages from july 1969 fighting of the population and preparation for active resistance by the White House Tapes Nixon... Vietnam against the bombing campaign angers many in Congress and results in the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew. Then shifted to the domestic U.S. implications, Laird anticipated a `` devastating '' public reaction if U.S. casualties.! Half of the end is in sight. `` Son Nhut, frantic begin... 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