Norenzayan, A., Shariff, A. F., Willard A. K., Slingerland, W. E., Gervais, R. A., McNamara, R. A., & Henrich, J. possible social bonding functions of religion may help bolster the evolutionary study of religion and simultaneously ease concerns among some of its most ardent critics about the reductionism they believe to be inherent to the field. (2017). What predicts religiosity? 2011). Brown, G. R., Dickins, T. E., Sear, R., & Laland, K. N. (2011). Reddish, P., Tok, P., & Kundt, R. (2016). Hunter-gatherers and the origins of religion. Kathrine Starkweather is a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and co­editor of EAS News. There are three forms of modern Darwinian evolutionism in the social sciences and humanities: the gene-based biological, the social learning-based sociocultural, and gene–culture coevolution dealing with their interaction. How do rituals affect cooperation? B. Confer, J. C., Easton, J. Religion is the result of an evolutionary process in human culture. In this chapter we critically review evolutionary approaches to understanding religion by looking, in turn, at three main perspectives: religion as a by-product, religion as an adaptation, and religion as the product of cultural evolutionary processes. Evolutionary, Cognitive, and Contextual Approaches to the Study of Religious Systems: A Proposition of Synthesis August 2019 Method & Theory in the Study of Religion Radek Kundt compares the notion of evolution in cultural evolutionary theories with neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory to determine the value of the biological concept for studying culture. In C. Sabbagh & M. Schmitt (Eds.). Human behavioral ecology: Current research and future prospects. Tinbergen, N. (1963). A., Hennes, E. P., Stern, C., Gosling, S. D., & Graham, J. In J. Bulbulia, R. Sosis, & E. Harris (Eds.). The cultural morphospace of ritual form: Examining modes of religiosity cross-culturally. One topic that has been given only minimal space is religion. Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion surveys the historical background of cultural evolution as used in the study of religion, pinpointing major objections to … A. Do triangles play tricks? We hope that you all enjoyed the AAA/CAA meeting in Vancouver as much as we did…. If religion is a western concept that has been used to shore up the authority of the colonial and sovereign state, through shifting, arbitrary demarcations between “religion” tradition, culture, reason, and the nation, then scholars should be wary of treating it as a stable, coherent object of academic study. White, C., Baimel, A., & Norenzayan, A. In her 2015 EAS talk and her 2016 paper, Power describes two modes of religious practice among Hindu and Christian residents living in two villages in rural South India. Costly signalling increases trust, even across religious affiliations. The eleven volumes of the Origin of the Idea of God (Schmidt and Koppers, Der Ursprung der Gottesidee, 1920-55) are incredibly erudite-but the theological underpinnings are so evident at every step that all but the historians of ethnology can only regret the enormous input of energy Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. Rottman, J., Zhu, L., Wang, W., Schillaci, R. S., Clark, K. J., & Kelemen, D. (2017). The adaptationist-byproduct debate on the evolution of religion: Five misunderstandings of the adaptationist program. Johnson, D. D. (2005). In their recent Nature paper, Purzycki and his colleagues also show a positive association between the perception of a moralistic god(s) and societal complexity, as well as prosocial tendencies of individuals. In W. G. Oxtoby, R. C. Amore, & A. Hussain (Eds.). Brown, G. R., & Richerson, P. J. Religion poses a problem for evolutionary anthropologists. Origins and evolution of religion from a Darwinian point of view: Synthesis of different theories. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movements than skeptics: An fMRI study. In S. Clarke, R. Powell, & J. Savulescu (Eds.). Evolutionary psychology: New perspectives on cognition and motivation. Wilson, D. S., & Green, W. S. (2011). In P. McNamara (Ed.). Currently much of the focus on the study of religion more broadly is centered around Abrahamic religions, though Purzycki says, “We know that not all societies are complex, not all religions are Abrahamic, and not all gods are concerned with morality.” We just don’t have a good sense about the variation that exists across cultures, therefore the first step for anthropologists should be describing that variation. Buss, D. M. (1995). Reasoning about purpose and design in nature. Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. Sosis, R. (2009). In P. McNamara (Ed. Therefore, an individual’s costly contribution to the group cooperative effort may be seen as beneficial to all and people with such a reputation may gain individual benefits. Religious actions speak louder than words: Exposure to credibility-enhancing displays predicts theism. logical naturalism and the issue of its justifiability in the evolutionary study of religion as well as for the study of religion in general. Atkinson, Q. D., & Bourrat, P. (2011). In P. McNamara (Ed.). Religious cognition and behaviour in autism: The role of mentalizing. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Nature’s medicine: Religiosity as an adaptation for health and cooperation. The nature and dynamics of world religions: A life-history approach. Durrant, R., & Haig, B. D. (2001). an overview for an evolutionary approach to religion that is not reliant on “cultural evolution,” which he terms Evolution Without Cultural Evolution (EWCE). This chapter focuses on cultural or sociocultural evolution. Historically, evolutionary anthropologists have allocated the majority of our attention to topics like subsistence strategies, parental investment, warfare, etc. Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behaviour. However, in order to complete the circle and apply the reputational benefits to the appropriate actor, Smith, Z., & Arrow, H. (2010). The ubiquity of religion, cross-culturally and historically, suggests that it is likely to have an evolutionary basis. Watts, J., Greenhill, S. J., Atkinson, Q. D., Currie, T. E., Bulbulia, J., & Gray, R. D. (2015). (2007). The behavioural ecology of religion: The benefits and costs of one evolutionary approach. Evolutionary theory includes a number of major hypotheses that can be applied to the study of all traits, including the traits associated with religion. The second theory regarding the origin of religion is the evolutionary approach. Many of us are interested in explaining how particular behaviors allow individual humans to adapt to their surrounding environments in ways that increase their own survival and reproduction, and it isn’t immediately clear that participation in religious behaviors should directly influence either survival or reproduction. “Religion” is complex and diverse. A., Fleischman, D. S., Goetz, C. D., Lewis, D. M. G., Perilloux, C., & Buss, D. M. (2010). restrict the evolutionary study of religion to genetic systems, and many evolution- ary researchers use a naturalized conception of ‘culture’to explain the systems that express and conserve religions (Geertz and Markusson 2010; Gervais et al. Is religion an evolutionarily evoked disease-avoidance strategy? Scholars employing an evolutionary approach to the study of religion and religious beliefs search for ultimate explanations of the origin, propagation, and persistence of religious beliefs. The God allusion: Individual variation in agency detection, mentalizing and schizotypy and their association with religious beliefs and behaviours. Peoples, H. C., & Marlowe, F. W. (2012). James R. Liddle and Todd K. Shackelford Oxford Library of Psychology. (2011). Whitehouse, H., & Lanman, J. ), Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. (2016). (2015). Powered by. Another abiding theme in Evolution, Religion, & Cognitive Science is that of the compatibility of ECSR, either with religious faith and practice or with other scholarly approaches to the study of religion. Wlodarski, R., & Pearce, E. (2016). pp 19-53 | Why should prosociality matter to other community members? This has been a challenging few months for all of us, with no end in sight…, We hope that you are all managing to find some peace and balance in these challenging times…. Religion as an evolutionary byproduct: A critique of the standard model. (2013). Those who perform greater and costlier acts in the short­term are more likely to be perceived as physically strong and hard­working, while those performing subtle, long­term investment behaviors are more likely to be seen as more devout and more prosocial by their peers. Westport, CT: … Contemporary Evolutionary Theories of Culture and the Study of Religion surveys the historical background of cultural evolution as used in the study of religion, pinpointing major objections to classical nineteenth-century theories. Subsistence and the evolution of religion. A well-disposed social anthropologist’s problems with the ‘cognitive science of religion’ (2017). Abell, F., Happe, F., & Frith, U. Sosis, R., & Bulbulia, J. Is religion adaptive. This is the most popular view that is taught or implied in the study of religion. The Evolutionary Approach Though that religion naturally evolved from the simple to complex ant that this evolution was a natural consequence of human nature * Was centered on the questions of when and how religion began the honest signal must be received by community members. Amore, R. C. (2014). This is a preview of subscription content. Johnson, K. A., Li, Y. J., & Cohen, A. (2017). (2017). In S. Clarke, R. Powell, & J. Savulescu (Eds.). First and foremost, we hope that this email finds all of you in good health. Atkinson, Q. D., & Whitehouse, H. (2011). This paper discusses some questions associated with the evolutionary study of religion. Jost, J. T., Hawkins, C. B., Nosek, B. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Religion, Crime and Punishment He also introduces an alternative evolutionary approach to the study of culture which does not claim that the principles of neo-Darwinian evolution should be applicable outside the biological domain and shows that this alternative evolutionary approach provides a deeply enriching line of enquiry. Next, in order to have a better grasp on how and for what purposes religion evolved, we need to explain the variation. Unites theoretical and empirical work of leading scholars in evolutionary psychology, religious studies, cognitive science, summarizing existing work and serving as a guide to the debates that remain to be resolved (2014). Gervais, W. M. (2013). Xygalatas, D., Mitkidis, P., Fischer, R., Reddish, P., Skewes, J., Feertz, A. W., & Bulbulia, J. Drug use and addiction: An evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary accounts of human behavioural diversity. 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