This study explored nutrition education in the context of a phenomenology, providing an in-depth, holistic understanding of the experience and perspectives of classroom teachers. phenomenology as a method for doing research. One selects four or five respondents, or four or five carefully selected groups for group discussion. Because they really want to put themselves to be like their teacher or that role. Although data were collected around the time that each teacher normally taught their main nutrition unit, some recollections addressed were experiences from earlier in the school year or from the previous school year and may not have been accurate. Registered in England & Wales No. As the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in the United States, so have nutrition education interventions. … If you have better nutrition, then in turn,  hopefully you'll do better at school.” (Carrie), “I think it's just as important [as other subjects]. Teachers expressed that they wished parents would be more involved in student wellness, but did not know how to get them more involved. A Qualitative Phenomenological Explorati .... https://doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2016.1157532, http://www.fns.usda.gov/ffvp/fresh-fruit-and-vegetable-program. Clustering was performed to group related constituents together, and each category was given a thematic label. So , Initially I look at a house from say five perspectives, and then I repeat the experience of looking at the house from other possible perspectives in my imagination. Students' own sense of enjoyment increased the teachers' sense of enjoyment, emphasizing the need to create materials for classrooms that engage and excite students. Participants were contacted via e-mail with a cover letter and consent form explaining their rights as participants. Probes: Comfort, confidence, enjoyment, appropriateness. Tell me how you feel about teaching students about nutrition as part of the school curriculum? The purpose of this essay is to collect and exhibit a crude paradigmatic clue of doing a hermeneutic phenomenological research. research about the subjective experience of balancing the constant demands of caregiving while raising a family. The patient-body relationship and the 'lived experience' of a facial burn injury: a phenomenological inquiry of early psychosocial adjustment. We are doing more on the adult piece, not the kid piece. The decision to adapt the curriculum was partly of their own choosing and partly due to students' positive response to the curriculum. It is done through a change in attitude of the researcher. Data was collected using audiotaping of interviews and field notes. These are different modes of awareness through which you become conscious of an object , the tree. For example, one could write about the combination of objective reality and individual experiences. Operationalising data saturation for theory-based interview studies. A phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that describes the meaning of a lived experience of a phenomenon for several individuals, which in this case is the experience of nutrition education. phenomenology as a method for doing research. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. Moreover, phenomenology in business studies is a valuable philosophy for exploring human experiences in management studies. Both physical activity and nutrition research has demonstrated that when teachers model positive behaviors, such as participating in a physical activity program or consuming fruit, students are more likely to perform those behaviors.2,3. Because teacher-delivered, classroom-based nutrition education interventions have become more common, it is imperative that health educators design, implement, and evaluate these interventions to address these complex perspectives and experiences. Ethnographic Research. Rather, teachers felt that the fact that the curriculum was organized, simple, and easy to use improved their confidence. Research Design: There are many different types of study designs and different research traditions are used in different studies such as narrative research, phenomenological research, grounded research, ethnographic research and case study research etc. The data in each interview seems to cluster around these themes. Heather stated, “I think I could talk more about it and even educate myself more on some of the correct terms and how to talk to them [students].”. United States Department of Agriculture. Teachers generally receive training on new nutrition education materials with the goal of increasing program fidelity and confidence, as was the case with the curriculum provided in this study.5,40 Surprisingly, though, teachers did not express confidence in relation to being trained. … And I arranged so that every day during NeSa testing the upper grades would have a snack.” (Jane), “I think I could talk more about it and even educate myself more on some of the correct terms and how to talk to them.” (Heather), Nutrition education was important compared to other school subjects, Nutrition education was essential at a young age to form the foundation of healthy lifestyle habits, There was a responsibility to help shape students' nutrition choices, It was a necessity to teach in the classroom environment, “It's [nutrition is] probably one of the most important and most relevant pieces of our health curriculum that we do.” (Paula), “I'll be honest with you … I think it's just as important or more important because like I said earlier, if you don't have healthy nutrition, then your body isn't ready to be able to be here. The fundamental goal of the approach is to arrive at a description of the nature of the particular phenomenon (Creswell, 2013). Then one conduct in-depth interviews or focus group discussions , and try to access the first hand experience of the respondents through using un-structured questions. If I see a profile of a picture and infer from this profile the whole image , it means that I have transcended what is given to my consciousness and I have brought my judgment , my learning from my previous experiences to this perception. Eidetic reduction means to reduce an experience to ideas or essences. Information gleaned from this assessment can form a foundation for creating trainings or workshops, which can better engage and motivate teachers by addressing the most appropriate topics. These experiences cannot be called purely phenomenological, because a purely phenomenological experience is purely mental. Observed or expressed strategies included personalizing the lessons to make material meaningful, repurposing group lessons for independent discovery learning, facilitating group learning to promote peer influence, providing opportunities for mastery experiences, role modeling, using verbal persuasion, incorporating additional learning strategies into the provided lesson, modifying lessons as needed to adapt to students' needs, and showing connections between materials. Although there is no standard for a minimum number of participants in qualitative research because its purpose is not to generalize, previous experts have identified a sample size of 10 as adequate, generally when extensive detail has been collected to saturation.23 In this study, teachers were no longer recruited once saturation had been reached, in which no new information was provided to aid in the understanding of the phenomenon. Research in phenomenology has benefitted from using exceptional cases from pathol-ogy and expertise. Types of Phenomenology: Two approaches to phenomenology are highlighted in this discussion: hermeneutic phenomenology (van Manen, 1990), and empirical, or psychological phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994). Strawson gives the example of cognitive phenomenology, whereby there is something it is like experientially to understand a proposition. A significant barrier for teachers is that these materials are generally expensive and time consuming to create, so if there is not a frugal solution available, it would be burdensome for teachers to integrate into their classrooms. These examples are to be studied in depth , and then one has to perform imaginative variation on these examples to find out the invariant element . Then one has to sample different exemplary examples of that phenomenon. 'We break it … Exploration with teachers revealed complex feelings toward nutrition education that were not always consistent. Along with time, prioritization of core subjects limited nutrition education. So I think that, you know, five minutes of movement break is huge. The following prompt was given, “Please write a reflection about how you felt about this specific set of lessons after you completed it.”. Data was collected using audiotaping of interviews and field notes. Understanding teachers' perspectives on nutrition education is essential for program delivery and, ultimately, student outcomes. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. All judgments are to be suspended and the only thing to be considered is how people are experiencing the phenomenon in their consciousness. For example, when students expressed enjoyment of a particular group lessons, teachers would adapt that lesson for independent learning opportunities, demonstrating the students' indirect effect on the curriculum. Participants predominantly taught kindergarten (50%) or first grade (40%). However , this purely phenomenological is always embedded in the concrete space time time events , therefore search for the purely phenomenological starts from these experiences. A study analysing the impact of leadership style on employee motivation through conducting in-depth interviews with employees is a relevant example for research with a phenomenology … Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. There were no significant discrepancies, and any small differences were discussed and resolved to create one set of themes. If I look at a computer from four sides, I can think about the infinite possible perspectives from which I can possibly see a computer. The transcendental phenomenology approach by Moustakas, adapted from Husserl, focuses on the participants' given descriptions to generate an essence of the lived experience, as opposed to hermeneutical phenomenology which more strongly relies on the researcher's interpretations of what the lived experience means. The most commonly perceived improvements in behavior included more frequent handwashing, consumption of a variety of foods, consumption of nutritious meals and snacks, and willingness to try fruits and vegetables. Health educators could pilot test the effectiveness of a curriculum delivered as written versus an adapted curriculum on student outcomes and determine whether it would be appropriate to allow teachers more freedom with the curriculum or to encourage teachers to strictly follow the curriculum. Due to nursing’s involvement in examining phenomena within a contextual health care framework, phenomenology is not only conducive to the discovery of information but also the development of nursing knowledge essential to the profession. The study sample consisted of 10 helping professionals with learning disabilities that work in helping professions. One possible limitation of adaptation is that teachers will include unreliable and inaccurate nutrition information, so future studies should examine the balance of fidelity and adaptation with student outcomes. Grade school staff have noted that lack of physical activity makes it difficult for students to focus, however some believe that providing these breaks will make it difficult to get students back on task, unlike the teachers in this study.48,49. Reduction and elimination of statements that were not a horizon of the experience was performed to determine the invariant constituents of the experience. For example, a quantitative study cannot adequately describe the angst of a parent missing a child‟s Health educators should conduct a needs assessment not only with their target population for intervention but also with the target sample of teachers expected to deliver the intervention. Additionally, teachers would have to pay out-of-pocket for any supplementary materials. These themes were used to construct individual and overall textural, structural, and textural–structural descriptions, culminating into an overall essence of the experience. Because if we're seeing that small of a change now, what could it be in like two years or something?”. We use cookies to improve your website experience. Teachers perceived that their roles in combination with the interactive nutrition curriculum positively influenced students. Although evaluation and analysis of curriculum are not within the scope of this article, the type of curriculum likely shaped the unique nutrition education experiences of the teachers. Epoche’ means ‘to pocket’. How phenomenology attains to this aim of eliminating every thing bound by time and space , every thing physical from its subject matter? This is called determination of essences , or eidetic reduction. All teachers reported integrating some type of supplementary education or activity in relation to nutrition and/or physical activity. All interviews were audiotaped for accuracy. With teachers making numerous efforts, these roles may have significant implications for students. One can access this content of noema and noesis through reflection. supportive people who provide opportunities, offer direction, and lead by example, combined with practical on-the-job real life work experience, and purposeful development through workshops, institutes, fellowships and other leadership ... academic research library leaders. A researcher , while excercising epoche’ holds back , or pockets or brackets all judgments about the physical nature. Although teachers followed the same expert-created curriculum kit for their grade level, they influenced the lessons by adding in a variety of strategies or adapting the curriculum to enhance their influence on students. For example, a quantitative study cannot adequately describe the angst of a parent missing a child‟s A qualitative transcendental phenomenological approach was used in this study. Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, What is an adequate sample size? Purposive criterion sampling was used to identify teachers who have experienced the phenomenon of delivering classroom-based nutrition education. In this analysis one finds certain themes or underlying currents that are to be focussed. While there are no specific rules when determining an appropriate sample size in qualitative research, for phenomenological studies, Morse (1994) suggests at least six, but others put the range at three to five, maxing out at eight. Melissa expressed, “They believe everything their teacher says and they look up to their teacher as this role model. 1970s, phenomenological psychologists established a praxis, which is a methodological realisation of the phenomenological philosophical attitude (Stones, 1988). Carrie described one particular student who had simply become more willing to try fruits and vegetables throughout the year, reflecting, “So even that small of a change of a behavior I think is huge, especially at this age. Thus , the object of consciousness that remains same in its different phenomenon is called the noema and the modes to access this noema are called noesis. The conflicted feelings demonstrated in this study have rarely been demonstrated in the current literature, which illustrates a promising area in which health educators can work to reduce confliction and strengthen already existing preferences toward nutrition education. Finally, they were required to have at least one year of experience with the curricula. While nurses can relate to the phenomenological approach because they see it as sharing the values of nursing, this may not be sufficient on its own to start conducting this kind of research. This noema will be different from the actual objects because it will include in its description all possibilities of that object. … I don't know if I'm crossing the line, talking to the mom or not.” Teachers did try making efforts to reduce this barrier by creating their own newsletters or utilizing newsletters provided with the curriculum to send home to parents. How influential do you believe YOU, specifically, are in changing students' nutrition knowledge? Then one has to sample different exemplary examples of that phenomenon. But I cannot actually perform these infinite number of perceiving experiences. Max van Manen (2007) wrote that phenomenology A phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that describes the meaning of a lived experience of a phenomenon for several individuals, which in this case is the experience of nutrition education. During imaginative variation one has to consider almost all possible ways of looking at the phenomenon. 23,31-33 Member checking, identified as the most critical validation technique, was conducted with participants to determine the credibility of the findings and interpretations.31 Final themes, as well as a sample of the invariant constituents of those themes, were e-mailed to all teacher participants for review. Semistructured interviews were conducted with teachers privately in their regular classroom. Teachers consistently reported that interactive, hands-on curriculum engaged students and led to demonstrated changes in behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy. However, teachers expressed and demonstrated enjoyment and commitment to nutrition education. Phenomenology addresses the nuances of everyday experience and shows a more complete picture of the lifeworld of caregivers. Based on results from this study, relevant areas to assess may include barriers, knowledge, confidence, attitude, perceived influence, and motivation. Most felt very comfortable delivering the material, demonstrated while teaching. Although Head Start teachers have also expressed being motivated by the idea that children inherently need movement, little has been studied on elementary teacher motivation.50 A key aspect to recruiting teachers to nutrition education efforts and improving their delivery of materials is motivation. So , while doing a phenomenological investigation , one is not concerned about the existence of an object of consciousness. Professional Development and Continuing Education, Supervising and Teaching Research Skills and Roles, Free Chapter From Andy Field’s New Statistics Book. Um, so it really sets the stage of, if I talk about  what healthy choices I'm making, how these things impact me, they're gonna be more apt to try and want to do those  themselves. How do you view the subject of nutrition compared to other subjects you  teach (such as math, English, etc.)? All teachers believed that nutrition education was important for their students. Teachers who responded reported that the provided account accurately reflected their perspectives and experiences. phenomenological research process. All teachers voiced that core subjects, such as math and literacy, were “top priority” compared to nutrition because these subjects involve standardized state testing and relate to later life employment. Learn more about Mailchimp's privacy practices here. But you can certainly do the math  and the reading and the writing with nutrition, you know, teaching nutrition. Efforts aimed at increasing teachers' nutrition knowledge and providing solutions to core subject conflicts could help to shift the balance toward increased dedication to nutrition education. During these imaginative experiences I try to change certain details and see what is that which remains self same in all the variations. For all kids.” (Carrie), Barriers to nutrition education included time, prioritization of core subjects, resources and budget, and home environment, “Our curriculum is only updated as budget permits.” (Becky), “We can't teach all the lessons.” (Melissa), “I think time is the biggest factor. Only one teacher believed that she was not significantly influential for students: “I know at this age, a lot of kiddos do look up to me, but at the same time, it's not as in like a big life picture … I think it's something that kind of fades away after time” (Heather). I want to understand what you mean, can you tell me again? It studies consciousness. Previous findings have supported that adaptation normally occurs and can aid implementation success.42,43 Allowing adaptation can increase teacher willingness to deliver nutrition education by providing them with the flexibility necessary for the classroom environment.10 Outcomes such as improved attitudes toward fruits and vegetables have been demonstrated with this freedom.44 Although fidelity of implementation is important for evaluation and predicted outcomes, adaptation has the potential to improve the educational experience by making material more meaningful for students, targeting students not performing at grade level, and incorporating strategies for different learning styles. Phenomenological Methods Section. We use Mailchimp as our marketing platform. Other teachers felt that more efforts needed to be made with nutrition education in a broader sense rather than just their individual role: Outside of the world we hear the big push of health and obesity and all these things and how they're important. So I bought a  bag of spinach, and I brought it, and I just had them try just one plain leaf of spinach. This organized data is then to be subjected to imaginative variation. Resources and budget were barriers that influenced the nutrition education experience. Motivation for including voluntary activities is a fairly new finding. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Teachers were observed on their use of the nutrition education materials, incorporation of their own teaching strategies, attitude and demeanor while teaching, strategies to promote nutrition-related knowledge, behavior, self-efficacy, and arrangement of classroom. These findings can be vigorously reported through the use of direct quotations of the Throughout the process of the interviews, probes and follow-up questions were added as needed to encourage elaboration and clarify responses. The belief in existence is an immanent part of our consciouness. This study by Frank Siroky used empirical phenomenology, the analysis of interview transcripts. I mean, we wouldn't spend the whole year doing lessons like we're doing  right now, but I think it carries over.” (Karen), “I almost am positive they [students] don't go home and talk about nutrition at home and so, they need to learn about it  somewhere.” (Sue), Teachers influenced students' behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy through the additional activities they offered and  roles they played. How does this compare to the role you think you should play? So, when you see a horse , you only see a phenomenon of it , neither you see the particular horse you are looking at , fully and completely , in one act of perception , nor you can perceive the universal horse, that you mean when you say the word horse. Teachers are important role models in students' lives as familiar adults who spend a significant amount of time with children and thus have the potential to positively influence expected outcomes of nutrition interventions. Getting deep, rich data from multiple interviews of the same small sample of particpants is considered more important than the actual number. So I want them to be, you know, be a five year old and have that chance to move.”. Integral to perceived influence was the value that teachers placed upon this influence. Written consent was obtained and each participant was assigned a pseudonym. THE ASTHMA STUDY. Data collection was completed over a period of 6 months and ended upon saturation of the data, when no further themes or new information emerged to add to the understanding of the phenomenon. Tell me about anything you may do nutrition- or physical activity–related in  your classroom outside of GHK? Other roles included advocate, supporter, engager, guide, school “wellness champ,” and enlightener. Regardless, teachers attempted to tackle the issue of time by fitting in as many lessons as possible. When comparing nutrition to other school subjects, Carrie stated, “I'll be honest with you … I think it's just as important or more important.” She believed that it carried over to the rest of the students' school day by helping them to concentrate, learn, and achieve success in other academic subjects. The lack of focus groups as a data source may have limited the depth of information; however, 3 data sources were used to triangulate the data. Consciousness is always intentional . This exploration was approved by the Internal Review Board of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the review board of the participating school district. 3099067 Although teachers expressed that they influenced students, they also felt that they had no control over the home environment and that poor habits at home could undo the efforts that they expended for their students. Environmental motivators included the food/physical activity environment and childhood obesity. Despite a competing internal dialogue and external barriers, teachers voluntarily expended efforts throughout the school year to maximize an enjoyable nutrition and movement experience for their students and themselves. All teachers from low-income schools had the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in their classrooms.29 Teachers' experience with the curriculum ranged from 2 to 12 years. Thus, consciousness is always of something , it is always directed towards something , it always has an object. The word phenomenon actually stands for the phrase’ how things appear to one’s consciousness. Health educators could work one on one with teachers to identify internal motivators or address larger groups of teachers in motivational workshops with the subject matter. So, I think what I say  they take to heart.” (Nora), “Well, um, at the beginning of the year, nobody was ever taking salad. Several studies solely explored teachers' perspectives; however, these studies were conducted in Head Start or preschool classrooms, different from elementary school environments.16,17 One study explored the role of elementary classroom teachers in nutrition and physical education within low-income schools but was strongly quantitative in presentation, lacking depth and warranting further exploration in this area.18 Elementary school classrooms are an ideal environment for nutrition education delivery due to the time that students spend at school and the number of youth attending public school. However , in all modes of awareness, the object remains the same , the same tree is the object of your consciousness in all these modes. During the course, it emphasizes on the metaphysical stance, methodological grounds, quality concerns and ethical issues In turn, teachers perceived themselves as very influential figures for this young age group. So, if after looking at a perspective , a phenomenon of a thing , one infers the whole thing from it , one violates the limits of phenomenology. The study sample consisted of 10 helping professionals with learning disabilities that work in helping professions. Teachers were asked to complete a reflection on each of the 5 lessons to understand their feelings on each lesson and the perceived influence on student learning. Trainings are commonly provided with most programs pre-intervention to familiarize teachers with program materials and improve fidelity; however, these trainings generally focus more on intervention expectations for teachers and less on the teachers and their perspectives. They believed that this relationship had positive outcomes for both themselves and their students. But exactly how are we to generate and apply knowledge from such cases to the phenomenological domain? Teachers expressed feelings of value and importance toward nutrition education, while conversely expressing prioritization toward core subjects and clarifying that nutrition did not necessitate an equivalent amount of education. Now they take it.” (Karen), “It [the curriculum] engages them more. Teachers all followed the same interactive, expert-created curriculum kit, specific for their grade level, which they believed had unique qualities that engaged and improved student learning compared to other curriculum. Teachers made efforts to adapt the provided curriculum to their classroom, personalizing it for their students and adding additional learning strategies. I have to look for invariant attributes , things that are essential to my perceiving of a computer. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Teachers struggled with balancing feelings of importance toward nutrition, their prioritization of core subjects, and the question of whether nutrition needed an equal amount of dedication. b This question was added during the interview process in response to developing themes; all teachers addressed this topic. Health educators could also benefit their population by facilitating communication between teachers and parents. Pninit Russo-Netzer & Ofra Mayseless (2014) Spiritual Identity outside Institutional Religion: A Phenomenological Exploration, Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 14:1, 19-42. Health educators creating nutrition interventions should be mindful of the classroom teachers and the potential that they may not be well trained or particularly familiar with the topic of nutrition. And portions I  think are just enormous. There were few limitations to this study. 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