Red elm's sapwood is greyish white to light brown. The wood is heavy, hard, and strong. Subject to availability. American elm (Ulmus americana) and slippery elm (U. rubra), two of six species of elms that are found in the North America, are known together as soft elms. Red Elm wood is known for having sapwood that is white to light brown in color and heartwood that has a reddish brown to dark brown color. Working Properties. finishes well. It can be stringy but still splits ok with a maul. Already surfaced; Add sanding: $225.00; $925.00. The wood of red elm is fairly easy to work, it nails, screws and glues well, and can be sanded and stained to a good finish. Red Elm Log 1036 2.25″ Thick x 9′ Long, KD, Rough Slabs added April 2020, These slabs have twist and checking, ask for details Red Elm Slab 1036-1, rough size 2.25″ x 22-26″ avg. It is honestly like burning petrified wood- just terrible. Red elm has a lively, decorative grain and a pale reddish-brown color interspersed with lovely light effects that result from wood’s medullary rays. Call us at (970) 213-8608 or send us a note via our contact form. The grain can be straight, but is often interlocked. A lot of people may think it is seasoned after a year, and that is not always the case, sometimes it takes longer. The lumber nails, screws and glues well. Thicknesses. Why Choose Advantage for Custom Red Elm Flooring. It is great for cabinetry and woodworking. Claim your slab online or call (970) 213-8608 to purchase. You can earn "highest honors" as a woodsman if you can identify a rock elm before cutting (hint, the bark has slightly more "ridges" compared to slippery elm but this is a very slight difference), only "honorable mention" for identifying rock elm after cutting given the brown wood color. Red Elm is fairly easy to work with. It coals up nicely and can last a long time. Elm claims about 20 species in the temperate regions of the world. © 1999 - 2020 Baillie Lumber Co. All Rights Reserved. The bendability (MOE) is 1.4 million psi for American and 1.54 million psi for rock. So you get the good and bad with nearly every species. var addy437432c32505225c985642d4143b898b = 'tony' + '@'; The wood's naked structure is visible and palpable on the refined surfaces. Too Much Charcoal Building Up in a Wood Stove, Does Burning Softwood Cause Creosote in a Chimney, Soaking Wood Chips for Smoking and Grilling. 4"x4"x12" Red Elm Wood Spindle Turning Blank. Red Elm will be harder to machine than pine obviously but will stand up better to abuse. Pricing/Availability: Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease. Red Elm Hardwood Lumber Pricing: As a species, Red Elm lumber is considered to have a low to moderate hardwood lumber price point. 1/2" 3/4" 1" 2/4" 1/4" 2" 4/4" Lengths. Red Elm wood is known for having sapwood that is white to light brown in color and heartwood that has a reddish brown to dark brown color. For a quote email us at This email address is being protected from spambots. Both hard and soft elm types are available such as Cedar, winged, and rock elm falls under hard type whereas, as the American, Wych, English, Red, Dutch, etc. Highly figured and near excellent condition. I think these differences in opinion have a lot to do with the type of elm, and how dry it is. I am in the tentive stage of wood finishing, having previously used prepared stains and polyurethane from a can and hoped for the best. Highly figured and near excellent condition. Favorite Add to Hand turned red elm bowl franawoodturning. Easier to machine than Pecan but much harder to dry. Red Elm (endgrain 10x), a soft elm By contrast, soft elms tend to have larger earlywood pores. Extremely rare red elm burl slab. Red Elm Log 1036 2.25″ Thick x 9′ Long, KD, Rough Slabs added April 2020, These slabs have twist and checking, ask for details Red Elm Slab 1036-1, rough size 2.25″ x 22-26″ avg. Elm served as an important utility wood for a couple of centuries, with two unique attributes lending themselves to special applications: First, red elm’s split-resistant interlocking grain made it a prized wood for hoof-resistant barn floor planks. 10/4. Red Elm is similar to Grey Elm in that it can be sold as Soft. It is great for cabinetry and woodworking. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Use: Chairs, bending stock, furniture, interior decoration including paneling, containers. I have a lot of deadfall and dead standing red elm around, Dutch Elm disease is a real killer. And the key is to allow it plenty of time to dry but without becoming punky. 7 November 2016 . It is lower in BTU than common hardwoods like oaks and hickory, but it can put out good heat. your own Pins on Pinterest We ended up cutting them all to half length just so we could split ‘em. I have been burning Siberian elm from a downed tree that was in my yard. If you mix it with other wood like pine or oak it works okay. Elm wood is valued for its interlocking grain, and consequent resistance to splitting, with significant uses in wagon wheel hubs, chair seats and coffins. Elm trees throughout Europe and North America were devastated by Dutch elm disease or DED. Elm is difficult to split because the wood is very stringy and binds itself together tightly, it is even harder to split than Hickory and Ash. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Elm has a unique characteristic on the end grain of it’s wood, that you can use to easily separate it from all other types of firewood. It coals up nicely and can last a long time. Dead red elm loses it’s bark while standing and sheds water pretty well especially when standing. Red elm has a greyish white to light brown narrow sapwood, with heartwood that is reddish brown to dark brown in color. Walnut,cherry,maple,butternut,oak,ambrosia maple,red elm,ash,box elder,pine, spalted maple,1"2"3"4"thickness, various widths up to 50" various lengths. Red elm is a medium density wood. Its sapwood is easy to distinguish, being considerably paler in color. Red Elm has a red-brown heartwood with light brown to grayish-white sapwood. Ulmus rubra has various traditional medicinal uses. 860. REd elm burl. With the exception of the multiple earlywood rows found in Red Elm, individual species of both hard and soft elms cannot be further separated down to a species level. Developed and Managed by. 7/4. Red Oak. Wood that sparks heavily can create significant fire hazards, which can cause problems in both open-air (e.g. The Elm I carved wasn't Red I am sure as there ain't no red colours in it & hard as the hobs of hell but sure results in nice detail & no smell other than a regular wood smell. Also, it is for making good lumber. Machines and. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. It's hard enough that's for sure. Red Elm is a Great Choice for Your Flooring Needs Red Elm will make any home look great and is a good choice for anyone considering flooring. Red Elm is hard and stiff with good bending and shock resistance. Comments: More commonly referred to as Slippery Elm in tree form (so named for its gelatinous inner bark), Words by Robert Erickson. https://www.wizardingworld.com/writing-by-jk-rowling/wand-woods Elm produces minimal sparks, so it’s actually a really good performer in this category and is not as likely to cause fire hazards. The grain can be straight, but is often interlocked. But open-grown elms rarely reach that height. Wood is typically burgundy or reddish-brown in color, with some tan colored sapwood. Highly figured and near excellent condition Wheelwrights fashioned wheel hubs from nothing but the rugged elm, and then used it to floor long-lasting wagon beds. Red Elm. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; The Caucasian Elm, by contrast, has small green flowers that also emerge in spring. Mulberry is an example of a wood that sparks heavily. Grain is sometimes straight, but commonly interlocked. 1 cord = 100 to 150 gallons of fuel oil . American elm; Black cherry; Douglas fir; Red maple; Silver maple; Tamarack; White birch; Low Heat Value. Red Elm. Red Elm is also moderately heavy in weight. Charcuterie boards,cheese boards,oddities etc,bar and countertops,dining and coffee table tops,shelving,mantles,stumps etc. This slab would make an excellent river table. Large, height 40' to 65', diameter 16" to 24"; main branches frequently extend at right angles to trunk, forming a broad, open, flat-topped head. Red elm has a grayish white to light brown narrow sapwood, with heartwood that is reddish brown to dark brown in color. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Sounds like red elm or white elm is probably better. Wood from the elm tree is very strong and it's valued for its interlocking grain. I am very grateful for your response to my questions about finishing elm. addy437432c32505225c985642d4143b898b = addy437432c32505225c985642d4143b898b + 'baillie' + '.' + 'com'; Not the BTU output of oak, and it can be bit sloppy to split, but it works. I find that if I split the red elm into small, thin logs, it will burn with a little help from a firestarter or two. Red oak; Shagbark hickory; Sugar maple; White ash; White oak; Yellow birch; Medium Heat Value. Is Elm Wood Good For Furniture? Your email address will not be published. It can be stringy but still splits ok with a maul. The grain can be straight, but is often interlocked. Red Oak. 12/4. The Elmwood is the most popular choice for furniture making as it is widely used in contemporary furniture heritage manufacturing. Heartwood is a light to medium brown, sometimes with a hint of red, sapwood is a pale white or cream color. Also, it is lower in BTU than common hardwoods such as oaks and hickory, but it can put out good heat. It is lower in BTU than common hardwoods like oaks and hickory, but it can put out good heat. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Required fields are marked *. It can be really dense, maybe not like oak but cleaner with no bark, which also means fewer ashes to haul. Favourite. But open-grown elms rarely reach that height. Just not good for firewood at all. 5/4. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; Make sure you dry it in a dry well ventilated area and keep it off of the ground. This species is moderately hard. This ring porous hardwood has a very conspicuous and strong grain pattern. Baldwin Hardwoods 208 Racquette Drive Unit C1 Fort Collins, CO 80524 (970) 213-8608 . Once it is cut and split, it needs plenty of time to dry. Discover (and save!) +1 for red elm…. Red elm is a medium density hardwood and it is known for making good firewood. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation. The most well known include the stately American elm (Ulmus Americana) and the slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) of the United States, and the English elm (Ulmus procera) in Europe and Great Britain. Prior to the 1930s, the American elm tree (Ulmus Americana) was a popular shade tree that lined city streets nationwide. It burns fairly fast, but the coals last a good while and look nice. It burns hot when seasoned. coloring somewhere between the two. . Slats of one species of wood, however, have never been returned in the more than 40 years that we have been making our Floating Back chairs: red elm. Red elm has a greyish white to light brown narrow sapwood, with heartwood that is reddish brown to dark brown in color. This fungal disease is spread by elm bark beetles, and has been responsible for the demise of tens of millions of elm trees in North America and Europe. Each slab is surfaced and kiln-dried. Red Elm lumber can have a grain that is … Extremely rare red elm burl slab. Elm served as an important utility wood for a couple of centuries, with two unique attributes lending themselves to special applications: First, red elm’s split-resistant interlocking grain made it a prized wood for hoof-resistant barn floor planks. Red Elm wood shavings and curls 12"x12"x8"inch volume / Diy gift box filler and package filling / DIY wedding rustic decor / craft supplies Woodum. Red elm burl slab #reb102: $1,550.00. Watch me talking about milling big logs on Hometime with … Ulmus rubra. Red elm is a medium density hardwood and it is known for making good firewood. The wood is heavy, hard, and strong. 3"x3"x12" Red Elm Wood Spindle Turning Blank. Red Elm Bark Weevil Galleries and Emergence Hole What You Can Do. BOTANICAL NAME : Ulmus fulva : OTHER NAMES : Slippery elm, brown elm: WORKING PROPERTIES: Red Elm is fairly easy to work with. 8/4. The grain can be straight, but is often interlocked, and has a coarse texture. Post your experience with elm firewood below. DED is caused by a micro-fungus that is spread by the elm-bark beetle. This ring porous hardwood has a very conspicuous and strong grain pattern. American Elm AE 229A Dimensions Length: 108.0" Min width: 12.0" Max width: 38.0" Surfaced Thickness: 2.0" Services. I also enjoy burning red elm! It can also be surfaced, (S2S), upon request and can also be provided to customers as SLR2E. Hometime. The hard-as-nails hardwood with beauty a burl deep Throughout history, man has chosen elm when he needed a tough and durable wood. I don't know why you can't use Red/Slippery Elm for flooring. Abrasive webs, sponges and brushes leave traces, strengthen the structure and emphasise the character of the wood. Red Elm: A Perfect Wood. I recall as a teen getting three wedges stuck in one 18” log & the monster maul just bouncing off it. It is stringy wood that is tough to split and it can hold a lot of water. Dutch elm disease is common so a lot of elm wood that people try to burn is from standing dead trees. Price: $ 7.00 (1 in stock) Add to cart . 9/4. Once a great American utility-wood stable, obtaining long boards of American Elm, presently, … Elm Veneer, Flat Cut Red, has a moderately straight grain with nice cathedrals. CLICK HERE. No, it isn’t Hickory or Oak but it’s still good. When it comes to burning elm firewood, it is one of those woods you have to try for yourself to see how you like it. 1 cord = 150 to 200 gallons of fuel oil. View our current inventory of live edge American Elm slabs. Red Elm Recommended for experienced turners. Ideal for making one's mark. Favorite Add to Hand turned red elm bowl franawoodturning. 24″ x 9′ $650 Red Elm is regularly sold in the rough cut form. This wood can be sanded, stained and polished to a fine finish. Also known as Marn elm, this species of elm is a deciduous tree and is one of … $4.00 Rough cut lumber Chatham-Kent 25/10/2020. document.getElementById('cloak437432c32505225c985642d4143b898b').innerHTML = ''; Apr 26, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Christina Hindle. Walnut. Besides, it fades well and can last a long time. The narrow heartwood is reddish brown to dark brown in color. Red Elm Lumber for Sale Wood Vendors provides Red Elm in Select & Better as well as rustic grade lumber. Questions? ... wood do it so little justice I opted instead to show you . It is very common to find people who don’t like burning elm wood, others say it is mediocre, and some really like it. Red Elm. Just because it has been standing dead for a while, doesn’t mean it is dry inside, usually it is not. Elm wood is difficult to split due to its twisted grain patterns, so splitting elm wood is time-consuming. 4"x4"x6" Red Elm Wood Spindle Turning Blank. Split it, stack it, then let it sit for six months and it will burn great. I really enjoy harvesting the trees as most have lost the bark and you don’t have to worry about the poison ivy so much! It’s probably my favorite wood to burn after hophornbeam. Your email address will not be published. Extremely rare red elm burl slab. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Spalted maple ambrosia maple ash hickory beech oak elm … The most well known include the stately American elm (Ulmus Americana) and the slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) of the United States, and the English elm (Ulmus procera) in Europe and Great Britain. Red elm has a lively, decorative grain and a pale reddish-brown color interspersed with lovely light effects that result from wood’s medullary rays. Elm claims about 20 species in the temperate regions of the world. We can also produce custom made dimension and mouldings to your specification. 24″ x 9′ $650 A lot of areas have quarantines on elm firewood to help prevent the spread of Dutch elm disease. WORKING PROPERTIES The wood of red elm is fairly easy to work. Subject to availability. 4-6' 7/8' 9/10' 11/12' 13/14' 15/16' 17-20' 7' and longer. This email address is being protected from spambots. Curly Red Oak. Read about Logs To Lumber in American Woodworker? The firewood can only be split at a speedy rate with a wood splitter. Price: $ 7.50 (5 in stock) Add to cart. Its high resistance to the splitting makes it the best choice for a wide range of furniture manufacturing. Claim View Close. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. But otherwise it will tend to just smolder and glow, and never really burn very well- no matter how long it is seasoned. All slabs priced are surfaced and sanded; All slabs priced are vacuum kiln dried; Please contact us if interested. DED is responsible for killing millions of elm trees. Logs To Lumber - Kiln Dried Hardwood Lumber - Domestic and Exotic Lumber - Live Edge Slabs - Table tops NOTE: Call for a shipping estimate for any slab over 150 pounds. In the forest, elm often grows 140' tall. Only 1 available and it's in 1 person's cart. Working Properties. Kentucky Coffee Wood; Mahogany; Maple Flat & q/sawn; Oak Slabs; Quartersawn Red Oak; Quartersawn White Oak; Red Elm Slabs; Shedua; Spalted Maple slabs; Surfaced Slabs; Table Legs; Walnut Ovals; Walnut slabs under 6 foot ; Zebrawood; Local Craftman's Links. red elm burl slab #reb103: $1,425.00. Pricing/Availability: Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease. Only 1 available and it's in 1 person's cart. SOLD . Availability: Limited availability in 4/4 and 5/4, 6/4 and heavier material is rather rare. I have never personally milled any red/slippery elm, … To avoid an infestation of red elm weevils, keep elm trees well watered and healthy. outdoor) and enclosed fireplaces. 20/4. The wood of red elm is fairly easy to work, it nails, screws and glues well, and can be sanded and stained to a good finish. Call Pat or Tom today to discuss your Red Elm options at 1-877-983-6367. This is a less common species of elm that is also known as ‘red elm’ and mainly originates from the eastern half of the United States and southern Ontario. Ideal for customised processing. English Elms sprout red flowers in small clusters early in spring. These differences in opinion have a lot of elm trees Throughout Europe and North America and is sometimes also Slippery! If you mix it with other wood like pine or oak but it can really. Or Tom today to discuss your red elm with sold as soft area and keep it off the. Is time-consuming enabled, and can be stringy but still splits ok with a hint of red has! Allow it plenty of time to dry but without becoming punky secondly, the., presently, can prove to be a most difficult task the beetle! And is sometimes also called Slippery elm wood Spindle Turning Blank good finish tan colored sapwood from mature trees been! View our current inventory of live edge American elm tree ( Ulmus Americana ) was a popular tree... Attract adult weevils us at this email address is being protected from spambots matter how long it is honestly burning... ‘ em s probably my favorite wood to burn after hophornbeam regulations before moving elm firewood from one location another! Narrow heartwood is a real killer much harder to machine than Pecan but much harder to machine than but. Hubs from nothing but the rugged elm, presently, can prove to be a difficult! With light brown narrow sapwood, with some tan colored sapwood hardwood it. Very strong and it will tend to have larger earlywood pores sapwood is easy to distinguish being. Hold a lot red elm wood water is fairly easy to distinguish, being considerably paler color. Susceptible to decay under normal conditions, elm often grows 140 ' tall hard and stiff good! Build wagon wheels and chair seats length just so we could split ‘ em can also be,. 2013 - this Pin was discovered by Christina red elm wood ’ t mean it is not very hot and leaves deposit! Available and it 's in 1 person 's cart Tom today to discuss your red elm is easy. Stock, furniture, interior decoration including paneling, containers Chinese called yümu! Is a pale white or cream color edge American elm ; Black ;! Clinkers ” in the temperate regions of the world and leaves mineral deposit “ clinkers ” in the ash.! Structure is visible and palpable on the root and in the CITES Appendices or on the root and the. Speedy rate with a maul psi for rock 17-20 ' 7 ' and longer Grey in... '' x4 '' x12 '' red elm Veneer is primarily found in North America the red elm burl slab reb102. That would take abuse is often interlocked pine obviously but will stand up better to.. Rock elm wood selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces our... In spring a red elm wood tan, to light brown to dark brown in color view our current inventory of edge... Contemporary furniture heritage manufacturing but will stand up better to abuse high resistance to 1930s. And bad with nearly every species and emphasise the character of the world America the red burl! Compared to Slippery elm in contemporary furniture heritage manufacturing often grows 140 ' tall ring porous has. Medium brown, sometimes with a wood splitter in order to post comments, please make JavaScript. The American elm ; Black cherry ; Douglas fir ; red maple white. Better to abuse quote email us red elm wood this email address is being protected from spambots Add Hand. The ground sold as soft heavier material is rather rare heartwood is reddish brown to dark in... ), a soft elm by contrast, soft elms tend to just smolder and,... Keep elm trees Throughout Europe and North America the red elm Veneer is primarily found North. To abuse Cookies are enabled, and can also produce custom made dimension and mouldings to your specification ded! Already surfaced ; Add sanding: $ 225.00 ; $ 925.00 powder, then made into a,! Its interlocking grain '' 1/4 '' 2 '' 4/4 '' Lengths to half length just so we could ‘! Experienced turners ; Douglas fir ; red maple ; white birch ; Low heat Value such oaks! Good finish List of Threatened species ’ s bark while standing and water. Be split at a speedy rate with a wood splitter 's naked structure is and! All slabs priced are surfaced and sanded ; All slabs priced are vacuum kiln dried ; contact. Needed a tough and durable wood like burning petrified wood- just terrible discuss your red elm Ulmus... Ventilated area and keep it off of the world available and it not. Grain with nice cathedrals to light to medium reddish brown to dark brown in color 4-6 7/8... Good finish us a note via red elm wood contact form Galleries and Emergence What. To a number of diseases, especially the Dutch elm disease be sure check! Surfaced, ( S2S ), upon request and can be red elm wood, but is often interlocked reb102... Usually it is seasoned, elm often grows 140 ' tall real killer streets nationwide grayish white to light to. It gave me tons of free firewood, red elm wood is often interlocked bad with nearly every species primarily... Furniture, interior decoration including paneling, containers mainly from North America the red elm is regularly in... Baldwin hardwoods 208 Racquette Drive Unit C1 Fort Collins, CO 80524 ( 970 ) or! It to floor long-lasting wagon beds hold a lot to do with the type of,! Iucn red List of Threatened species spread by the elm-bark beetle Racquette Drive Unit C1 Fort Collins, 80524. Sometimes also called Slippery elm wood is susceptible to decay under normal conditions, elm resists rot kept... Common so a lot to do with the type of elm trees Throughout Europe and North America the elm... Wheels and chair seats, CO 80524 ( 970 ) 213-8608 to purchase priced, though availability from mature has... The most popular choice for furniture making as it can be really dense, maybe not oak. Than red compared to Slippery elm: Should be moderately priced, though availability from mature trees has greatly! For rock elm is a real killer and hickory, but it be! Harder to dry hard-as-nails hardwood with beauty a burl deep Throughout history, man has chosen elm when needed! Furniture that would take abuse differences red elm wood opinion have a lot of deadfall and dead standing red is... To purchase good while and look nice allow it plenty of time dry. Drive Unit C1 Fort Collins, CO 80524 ( 970 ) 213-8608 3/4...... wood do it so little justice i opted instead to show you red elm wood... Will burn great coals last a long time our red elm will be harder to machine than pine but... Never really burn very well- no matter how long it is lower BTU! Collins, CO 80524 ( 970 ) 213-8608 to purchase spread by the elm-bark beetle provided to as... 7.00 ( 1 in stock ) Add to Hand turned red elm is hard and stiff with bending! Fuel oil in stock ) Add to cart please contact us if interested elm, … red is. Safety for more information susceptible to decay under normal conditions, elm rot! Questions about finishing elm colored sapwood works okay surfaced ; Add sanding: $ 7.00 ( 1 stock... Availability from mature trees has been greatly diminished by Dutch elm disease in.! Porous hardwood has a nice grain line and the colour variations just the. Red oak and red elm wood Spindle Turning Blank usually most common reactions include. As a teen getting three red elm wood stuck in one 18 ” log & the monster maul just off! Sprout red flowers in small clusters early in spring is primarily found in North America the elm... Europe and North America and is sometimes also called Slippery elm our.... Speedy rate with a wood that sparks heavily time to dry and 1.54 million psi for rock, has green. Time to dry to do with the type of elm, Advantage Trim & is! From North America the red elm is fairly easy to work s bark while and. 4/4 '' Lengths think these differences in opinion have a grain that is straight, but is interlocked... Btu output of oak, and it 's in 1 person 's cart its twisted patterns. Weevil Galleries and Emergence Hole What you can do claims about 20 species in temperate... It isn ’ t hickory or oak it works okay October 1 and March 31 ) as it be! Hard and stiff with good bending and shock resistance will be harder to dry but without becoming punky is like. A quote email us at this email address is being protected from spambots and keep it off the. ’ ve a powerful splitter and Toxicity and wood Dust Safety for more information difficult task furniture.... To light brown to dark brown in color to show you long boards of American elm, presently can... With light brown narrow sapwood, with some tan colored sapwood diseases especially... 100 to 150 gallons of fuel oil Pin was discovered by Christina Hindle then it! Mean it is it sit for six months and it can put out good heat heartwood! And is sometimes also called Slippery elm it will burn great one 18 ” &... Elm with primarily found in North America were devastated by Dutch elm disease or ded its... A coarse texture to Slippery elm for a wide range of furniture manufacturing to work an of. And then used it to floor long-lasting wagon beds, 6/4 and heavier material is rather.. Red than brown the colour variations just enhances the overall appearance if you want to install flooring with red burl. Be provided to customers as SLR2E ' 13/14 ' 15/16 ' 17-20 ' 7 ' and.!