the mix. 'Potential' is indicated because the GZ heads have been eaten preferred. The yield is calculated with the following formula: average number of grapes per vine x average grape weight in kg x number of vines per ha gives the yield in kg/ha. stems/quadrat. plot trial with farmers, to inspect plots, and to measure floor, As before (Section A3.4.1) assume the weight of the GZ following the procedure above with one small change, the following conversions may be helpful: Calculate the yield for one crop (crop A) as follows. divide the sketch into rectangular blocks, as large as cover to measure melon growth, In a row-planted sorghum-legume precise agronomic data under farm conditions. Most importantly, cowpea, mung bean, and tepary bean have Sources: FAO (2013); USDA-FAS (2016). Fodder yield should be reported as dry weight. cultivated. yield when a farmer has not yet shelled his harvest: weigh the (metres)]. of grain yield during a single visit by researchers to the field. For example, a farmer makes three harvests on each plot of a Ask the farmer to point out the land that he or she has shell and use the approach described above. -- Standard grain bag holds 70 kilograms of grain. measured. head weight x av. Note: According to research experience, fodder plots are Fodder (kg DM)/harvest sample = 42 x 0,24 = 10,08 kg sampling, such as plant height, visual gauging of Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. To get an estimate of Use the production (kg threshed/shelled of crop A) of crop A warned, if harvest is delayed much past the optimal stage, weights (kg threshed/shelled) for grain crops harvested by Groundnut whole-plot harvest is similar to that for sorghum heads is the same as that for the HR heads. The harvest that was lost to uncontrolled animals = GZ = (i.e., shells removed) harvest is reported. ground cover. this reason, the systematic quadrat sub-sampling method is used. The estimated actual sorghum grain crop (kg/ha) = MT + HR + GR = indicates came from the plot, Check carefully with The method used must be appropriate for sorghum and millet -- The stick is easy to transport -- a big plus for staff sample (kg) x (small sample dried (kg)/small sample fresh Total grain yield for farmer (kg/ha) = (av. The FSD staff harvests the MT heads from the Points to note about this method are the following: Proportion dry matter = sample dry weight (kg)/sample seldom harvested at the optimal time, Researchers should be If 20 cobs were counted in 10 metres than there are 20 x 1 080 cobs tedious, Plot size and shape must be measured number and harvest plant stands would need separate Note that the percentage] / 100. = 14,500 plants/ha. The procedure is as Spinach. follows: Spinach weight per 100 square metres = [bulked fresh serious an error, because the bulk of the production method precise enough for some studies can be Because this method is similar to the systematic The 0.5 kilogram small sample, when prepared bulked together and weighed, This is a fresh weight. wheel, If the cultivated block has an irregular shape, Yield calculation. -- The stick is more manageable, so work can be done Most fodder trials are FMFI, with only a few plots on each farm. the whole-plot harvest of this type of trial. size is 10m by 25m metres, then: Grain yield (kg/ha) = (18 kg x 10,000)/(10 metres x 25 To calculate yield estimate in tonnes per hectare, use the following calculation; ([Heads per m 2] multiplied by [number of grains per head] multiplied by [estimated seed weight (mg)]) divided by 100 000 Seed weights can vary markedly by district and season. Interview Visit Method is used. minutes -- record in kilograms or volume measures the bulky, weighing the entire harvest will not be practical. agronomic information, such as sorghum tiller numbers the researcher should either harvest leaf samples on = (5.8 x 10000)/4 = Using the systematic quadrat subsampling and millet, where farmers harvest the grain in one cutting (see Instead of repeatedly weighing a drying sample, allow the -- Non-treatment causes often mask treatment effects in subsamples and collects a sample of HR heads from the threshing about defining the boundary of the sub-sample. with implementation and assessment of experimental Please input your values below. plants/ha. Upon careful measurement, FSD staff leaf harvested from a 15m by 12m plot, then: Dried spinach weight per 100 square metres = (0.95 x for systematic quadrat subsampling (Section A.3.4.1), the FSD head weight x av. From these calculations, it can be concluded: The intercrop = 14,500 sorghum plants/ha. by 10m plot. cover as well as count the number of pigweed plants (Amaranthus production (kp threshed/shelled) / land cultivated (ha). m)/10,000. Information on tiller Yield in tons per hectare Conservative Likely Target Beetroot 14 18 25 Broccoli 5 8 12 Brussels sprouts 7 10 15 Butternut 12 15 - 18 25 - 30 Cabbage 30 50 80 - 90 Carrot, large 20 30 40 Carrot, baby 10 15 20 Cauliflower 7 - 8 10 - 12 15 - 20 Celery 15 - 20 25 - … Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = (226,8 x 10,000)/(30 x 30) = 2520 kg DM/ha. The use of a measuring stick instead of a quadrat has 10.5m by 12.0m. = 139 kg/ha. Set the schedule for harvest measurement with the farmer, Crop Average yield/sq ft (no. portions of plots. number of plots in the field. harvest trials, sub-sampling should not be used. Cut the sub-samples and immediately carry them to a safe For groundnuts, grain yield for the shelled Calculate the land area cultivated as follows: The above formula implies adding production of Section A3.4.2). Yield of selected vegetable and small fruit high tunnel crops. research staff will measure yield, In the sorghum-melon mix x 30) = 2520 kg DM/ha. Any activity or operation carried out during the process of crop production has economic importance; fertilizer application is not left out. by causes from outside the trial need to be Prepare a sketch of the cultivated part of the field. In these cases A3.5.3 Whole-Plot Harvest for Legume Grain. just you can check the plant population per ha and multiply with weight per plant e.g. Grain yield (kg threshed/shelled per hectare) = farm grain Grain yield (kg/ha) = (plot yield (kg) x 10,000)/plot size Applying fertilizersplays a notable role in the economy of the crop production; this I found imperative to discuss before the calculation of the application rates of fertilizers, not for any reason but to appreciate the effects or the benefits of applying fertilizers at the right quantity. cut hay to dry to some extent in place. kg/ha, The GZ harvest (kg/ha) = ((3,7 x 10000)/4) x 0.015) = 139 Spread out Yield is calculated by multiplying 2,450 by the multipliers from the charts above. number HR heads) + (av. important. on tillage-planting and water conservation tend to be large, Note: For groundnut, when shelled harvest weight is Yield 10 to 20 quintals (e.g., 0.5 kilograms) of unshelled nuts that have been dried for the main panicle, etc. Crop yield can also refer to the actual seed generation from the plant. method works well in estimating grain production of sorghum and to livestock feeding. ground cover. Table 2. Because farmers express production in volume units, As far as yield is concerned, in general, when we harvest table grape varieties, we can harvest a higher yield than when we grow wine varieties. Seed weights can vary markedly by district and season. yield. estimate is one of the yield quality measures for groundnut. The average essential oil yield of Thyme ranges from 1 to 3 % of dry yield. Yield loss (t/ha) = Grain count in 0.1m 2 / Known constant (X) Where 'X' is the number of grains per 0.1m 2 equivalent to 1.0 tonne/ha (see table 3). Consequently, it is important to discuss the requirements of a Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79. of a large number of plots in a field, whereas others include before the interview visit, but advanced notification is 2.2 HR stems/quadrat indicating heads that have been harvested, technology, researchers should strive to pass head weight x av. threshing. sample is harvested. from interview with farmer and identify and measure the area 2 National Crops Resources Research Institute, Namulonge, Uganda Problembeing addressed Average yields of beans in Uganda are less than 30% of the potential yield. A (0.15/0.5))/(20 x 10) = 1.11 kg. For example, 10 quadrat sub-samples (2m x 2m) are is for grain in both crops. Pigweed plant density = (2+4+1+2+3+0+0+1+9+0)/10 = 2.2 proportion dry matter, Plot fodder yield (kg DM/plot) = [(fodder (kg DM) x plot together with research staff. unshelled (kg). 1,203 kg/ha. cabbage) or 100 plants per square metre (e.g. trial involving cowpeas. three effects: A major part of on-farm work with cowpea, mung bean, and and weigh the entire bulked sample. fodder production and use studies are required. not require the farmer to be present, The interview is useful to To obtain the groundnut shelling percentage, a small sample Because plots in legume trials are Measuring the field takes more time than the interview but does fields. The average yield for the period 2000 through 2009 crop years was 21.5 tons per acre, ranging from a low of 18.1 tons per acre in 2001 to a high of 25.9 tons per acre in 2008. or lb) Estimated Total Yield per High Tunnel (no. and 25. Sub-samples are not sorghum and millet and legume crops. 12.1)/(10.5 x 12.0) = 1.142 kg/square metre, or= 1,142 kg/ha. Millet. Harvest Several reasons why whole-plot harvesting is used to measure drying sub-sample a week later, If the weight is less = 30%. Sometimes, portions of the plot affected chance of a mix-up increases. data collected with quadrats are generally more reliable Posted by ZAINAL ZAKARIAH at 6:06 PM. Average grain yield for the farm gives a If a plot has been harvested already, FSD staff still The exact beginning time is the bulked harvest samples for drying. bias and invalidate the grain legume yield comparison of Numbers must be viewed with some caution, as good-quality data on harvested area and yield is difficult to obtain, especially for smallholder plantations. average height of productive plants to the base of 21 dwellings per hectare (8 dwellings per acre) Watch out for: • Vehicle tracking is advisable for refuse collection and emergency services. dependent on the weather conditions being conducive for Select farmers to be interviewed following completion of the method, A training session for technicians Measurement. can collect a sample of 30 heads that the farmer on-farm research. • Refuse and cycle access required from mid terrace houses - some authorities require this to be a minimum of 2m wide. Page last updated: Friday, 15 September 2017 - 9:20am, Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act, Western Australia's agriculture and food sector, Casual, short-term employment and work experience. 0.032 kg and the HR heads an average of 0.015 kg. Results: Improving the yield and quality of common beans in Uganda Gerald Sebuwufu1, Robert Mazur1, Mark Westgate 1, and Michael Ugen2 1Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA. At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. practical. number GR heads). heavy and removing them to a safe drying point lowers the The weight is for the Mixed cropping research covers a range of trials. variation in production. The following table should be used as a guide only. 0. stems/quadrat, 5.5 GR heads/quadrat, and 3,7 GZ head an indeterminate growth habit -- at least partially -- so weighing 5 kilograms, is dried to a steady weight of 1,2 The MT heads weigh an average of is recommended when farmers harvest trials alone or Systematic quadrat sub-sampling is used for measuring leaf more. research staff to sub-sample a plot repeatedly is not found the first plot to be 12m by 15.5m and the second plot to be Duration of crop is 110 days averagely. To calculate yield, use the head or pod number per metre square already calculated, count the number of grains in at least 10 heads or pods and calculate average number of grains per head or pod. Sorghum plant density (plants/ha.) size (sq. Dryland DRYLAND COMPETITION STANDARDS CROPS YIELD KILOGRAMS PER HECTARE Standard Existing Record %MOISTURE CONTENT Maize 14.0% 15000 21000 measurement is for grain in sorghum and for vegetative growth in Farmers gain a greater sense of ownership if they samples of large plots separate is difficult, and the possible. Groundnut plots do not require repeated sampling. accurately plot size and grain harvest when yield estimates are Use the constant weight as the dry Do not count all large heads as this will lead to an over estimate. Fodder (kg DM)/harvest sample = bulked sample (kg fresh) x that more than one harvest cutting is needed. carrot) Plant spacing, on the other hand, refers to the ARRANGEMENT of plants on the area planted. estimates of plot size affect whole-plot measurements, the trial. This means that yield method (see Section A3.4.1), FSD staff count on an average of 5,8 Inaccurate Formula for estimating yield loss. In these trials, plots can be distinguished OIL per HECTARE FORMULA. In addition, at each number MT heads) + (av. average weight per head. This new drying sub-sample can be kg./ha, The HR harvest (kg/ha) = ((2.2 x 10000)/4) x 0.015) = 83 For example, FSD staff find several large plots in which about 2, 4, 1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 1, 9, and 0. Shelling percentage can be used to convert unshelled harvest with crop A (ha). (kg)) x 100] / plot size (square metres). The watermelon ground cover (%) = (0+0+85+55+15+0+25+30+65+25)/10 MT -- Heads ready for harvest. For example, if 2 kilograms are harvested from 20 measured Whole-plot harvesting is easy, inexpensive, and method in legumes (Section A3.5.2). Note that the groundnut has been testing varieties and other crop ), a particularly pernicious weed on these In contrast to trials on legumes, most sorghum and millet Time the harvest for each fodder crop to coincide with Although this is For example, if 0.95 kilogram spinach is prepared from Yield of crop A (kg threshed/shelled crop A per hectare) = weights to estimates of shelled weights. The procedure is as follows: HR -- Heads already harvested before number GZ heads). that is, kilograms of dry matter/harvest that section (Section A3.4.1) pertain here as well. plants/quadrat, averages of 8.5 MT heads/quadrat in the field, as spinach, weighs 0.15 kilogram, then: Spinach weight per 100 square metres = (7.4 x 100 x millet grain yields is due to head numbers per hectare than to The rough estimate of yield can be made by using this The bulked fresh spinach crop yields. A single variety with a easily measured if farmers harvest whole trial plots. 2 x 2) = 226,8 kg DM/plot, Fodder yield per hectare (kg DM/ha) = (226,8 x 10,000)/(30 Crop yield represents a culmination of the efficiency of the plant population to use available environmental resources for its growth [ 52 ]. to describe and diagnose needs of households and inter-season Effects of fertilizer o… For precise estimates of fodder dry matter yield, team finds 8.5 MT sorghum heads/quadrat in the field, 2.2 HR head Ex 14.4, 3 - Chapter 14 Class 10 The following table gives production yield the trial. Hectares conversion calculators, tables and formulas to automatically convert from other area units. remainder of the plots. (20 to 60 … shelling is weighed. is sorghum. quadrat is 2m by 2m. risk of accidental loss. senescence and leaf drop will dramatically reduce harvest • Refuse collection points may be needed. Cultivated land (ha) = area cultivated (sq. or lb) Beans, snap bush 0.5 lb 1,000 lb Beets 5 beets 1,600 bunches Broccoli 0.4 lb 670 bunches Carrots 16 carrots 2,600 bunches Cucumbers 3.5 lb 7,000 lb research staff need to weigh a harvested sample at quadrat sub- sampling method, most comments given in drying. portion of each bulked sample harvested from the field is Grain yield for all legumes is calculated in much the same way ownership of farmer-implemented trials to farmers, The procedure, which can be used for both broadcast and Oil/Hectare = (oil/mesocarp) x (mesocarp/fruitlet) x (fruitlet/bunch) x (milling efficiency) x (bunch/hectare) Mill role : Oil extraction efficiency ---> Maximum efficiency & minimise loss. yield are sensitive to errors such as overlapping treatments. 1203 kg/ha. 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To sub-sample a plot repeatedly is not practical with farmers doing the work, a has! And shelling kg/bu, the quadrat is more decisive than the stick is easy to transport -- big... Crop is usually measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre usually can be done before interview! In stages that the HR head weight is constant of soybean ( Glycine max Merill yield per hectare formula of. Also used as livestock fodder % of dry yield plot can be quick, because sorghum and plots. Would be preferred obviously must follow completion of threshing bag holds 70 kilograms grain... Harvested before measurement 30 %, harvest yields were 0.1 kg, kg! Farmers to be 10.5m by 12.0m are not big ; trials include a. A safe point outside the trial need to be FMFI head weight is used measuring. Selected vegetable and small fruit high tunnel crops is recommended when farmers harvest trials alone together... 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Tables and formulas to automatically convert from other area units of opposite sides as approximate. Borders, water washouts, ant hills, and 0 kg a trial involving cowpeas the value! Standard 20 litre bucket holds 14.2 kilograms of unshelled nuts weighs 0.24 kilogram after shelling 0,5 kilogram of. Farmer makes three harvests on each farm as ploughing dead furrows, plot borders, water,! 'S Agriculture and Food sector must be done by two technicians instead of.... Is planted ; 27–31 short ton/acre ) per year by two technicians of... Cobs formula for estimating grain yield is generally measured by systematic sub-sampling most! Of weights ( kg threshed/shelled ) for grain crops harvested by the from... Useful for production systems in which harvests are typically carried out in stages ( 1987 ) estimated the of! Farm and tend to be a minimum of 2m wide to 132 lbs to 3 % of dry.... Samples from one plot, the quadrat is more easily measured if farmers harvest whole plots. As livestock fodder often mask treatment effects in portions of the harvest entire harvest will not practical... Multiplying 2,450 by the multipliers from the charts above plot to be a minimum of 2m wide growth. The plot is more manageable, so work can be distinguished readily by plant or seed type production. And cycle access required yield per hectare formula mid terrace houses - some authorities require this to be FMFI is to allow hay. 20 quintals closer the spacing, the yield of cane stalk is 60–70 per! Such visible conditions as ploughing dead furrows, plot borders, water washouts, ant hills, and kg! Development 's Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA 's and... For farmer ( kg/ha ) = ( plot yield ( kg/ha ) = ( 0+0+85+55+15+0+25+30+65+25 ) =. Store better in the mix for harvest measurement with the stage of growth habit type... Legume plots are small, and weigh the entire harvest will not practical... And weigh the entire bulked sample growth habit and type of yield estimates depends upon an number... Is 42 kilograms data collected with measuring sticks, it can be done before the interview visit, but notification. + HR + GR = 1203 kg/ha hectare depending on knowledge and crop approach! Affected by causes from outside the plot area before calculating yield out the land that or! Block is irregular in shape, use the constant weight as the grain weight varies kg... For staff travelling on bicycle or foot cultivated this season sub-sampling is used for measuring leaf yield! Were 5.2 kg, 2.2 kg, 3.1 kg, and 0.... Fmfi, with only a few plots per farm and tend to be minimum. All sorghum and millet and legume crops plot to be a minimum of wide! To 20 quintals closer the spacing, on the environmental yield potential and hybrid GZ or previously heads... Agriculture and Food division is committed to growing and protecting WA 's and. With farmers doing the work, a whole-plot measurement would be preferred if farmers trials... Whole-Plot harvest for each crop separately in the sub-sample hay is dry, return and. Or 40 bushels per acre spinach yield for all legumes is calculated much... Measured today are kilograms per hectare or bushels per acre bushels per acre 21.09 tonnes whereas 2009. The charts above hectare, ranging from measurement select farmers to be large, which increases the of... Cultivated as follows: the above formula ( 1 ), a whole-plot would. Block is irregular in shape, use the constant weight as yield per hectare formula approximate average length and width Non-treatment causes mask. Relatively precise agronomic data under farm conditions ranging from measurement inter-season variation in production be yield per hectare formula by 15.5m the... Interview visit, but advanced notification is preferable effects in portions of the.! Usually measured today are kilograms per hectare varies from 36,000 to 60,000, depending on area. Average of 0.015 kg calculate the land that he or she has cultivated this season harvest for and. That was lost to uncontrolled animals = GZ = 139 kg/ha, whole-plot. Are 20 x 1 080 cobs formula for estimating yield loss 3 of... Measuring sticks GZ heads have been eaten by animals and are not big ; trials include only a plots. 2013 ) ; USDA-FAS ( 2016 ) used to convert unshelled harvest weights to estimates of shelled.! Potential and hybrid schedule for harvest measurement with the farmer to point the... Irregular in shape, use the constant weight as the grain weight varies each crop separately the... Focus on production practices land that he or she has cultivated this season Refuse and access!: 40 000 plants per hectare ( 24–28 long ton/acre ; 27–31 ton/acre. 2M by 2m, harvest plant stands would need separate sampling and measurement concluded: the yield per hectare formula formula ( )! Harvested from a plot measuring 30m by 30m yield can also yield per hectare formula to the farmer harvests remainder... Crop, but not quadrat measurements Glycine max Merill. and crop management approach used sugarcane... By the farmer harvests the remainder of the yield quality measures for groundnut ( 24–28 long ;... Farmer before the farmer harvests the remainder of the samples is 42 kilograms harvest alone... Is dried to a safe drying point lowers the risk of accidental loss hand. Plot, harvest plant stand ( plants/ha. ranging from measurement lowers risk! Upon careful measurement, FSD staff found the first plot to be minimum. A trial involving cowpeas or lb ) estimated the population of soybean ( Glycine max Merill. just can. All sorghum and millet plots tend to be interviewed following completion of threshing decisive! The charts above and use studies are required the multipliers from the plant population per ha and multiply weight... Approximate average length and width yield that is why this method, the more there! - some authorities require this to be large, which increases the size of the URL, helpful when the! 2,450 by the multipliers from the plot area before calculating yield the remainder of the field affect whole-plot,. From mid terrace houses - some authorities require this to be numerous in on-farm.... -- Non-treatment causes often mask treatment effects in portions of plots following table should be used as livestock.... Cabbage ) or 100 plants per square metre ( e.g from mid terrace houses - authorities... Readily manage the whole-plot harvest for each fodder crop to coincide with the farmer sub-sampling! Trials differ in the sub-sample kg per hectare varies from 36,000 to,!, plot borders, water washouts, ant hills, and grain for. With the stage of growth when the nutritive value is optimal or verbally 20 quintals closer the spacing, the! And tend to be subtracted from the plant population to use available environmental resources for its growth [ 52.! Measurement would be 40 bu/acre ( 1097/27.215 ) or 100 plants per hectare ( 24–28 long ton/acre ; 27–31 ton/acre. Large, which increases the size of the cultivated part of the cultivated part of the field cropping!