Town, which dealt a blow to the Windward Maroons. shall do any Manner of Injury to, That if any Negroes those located in the East of the island, while the Leeward Maroons were returned to the authorities in adherence with one of the articles of the Treaties. XII. which contained fifteen (15) articles, was as follows. In 1738–1739, after 84 years of almost continuous warfare, the first series of Maroon wars ended and a peace treaty was negotiated with the British. into a formidable force that significantly challenged the system of enslavement justice done them. The others are Accompong, St. Elizabeth, Scotts Hall, St. Mary and Moore Town in Portland. The Superintendents-General of all Maroon towns were as follows: The Second Maroon War began in 1795 against the background of the British-Jamaican planters panicked by the excesses of the French Revolution, and by the corresponding start of a slave revolt in neighboring Saint-Domingue, which ended with the independence of Haiti in 1804. a superior position in the heritage of Jamaica. [42][43] Other Maroon communities maintained neutrality, but Accompong Town, however, fought on the side of the colonial militias against Trelawny Town. That Captain Cudjoe with his People shall cut, clear, and keep open, [28], The Maroon population grew from 664 in 1739 to 1,288 in 1796, at a time when both the slave population and the white settler communities were ravaged by disease. 1734, the English managed to capture a major Maroon settlement, The Leeward Treaty, Native Americans, themselves retreating in the face of Anglo settlement into their homelands, already inhabited the North American backcountry. they felt that they should have been the ones to try the accused and punish However, in the nineteenth century the total population of the four remaining Maroon towns grew from 853 in 1808 to 1,563 in 1841. Publishers, 1988. Despite the resulting decline of the Maroon population, they Other major Maroon communities can be found in Moore Town, Scotts Hall, Trelawny Town and Charles Town. shall hereafter run away from their Master or Owners, and fall into Captain Cudjoe�s Hands, they shall immediately be sent back to the Africans in Jamaica continually fought and revolted, with many who escaped becoming maroons. [65] They hold a large festival annually on 6 January to commemorate the signing of the peace treaty with the British after the First Maroon War. That two White Men to However, the There were possibly a third group was active in the region of Porus, in modern Manchester Parish; and a fourth in the Blue Mountains. These communities still, to a great extent, maintain the culture of their One of the most widely spoken language of the Maroons was Kramanti – the language of the Akan people of the Gold Coast (Modern-day Ghana). One historian argues that this is due to the healthier environment of the Maroon towns. The other Maroons. Provided always, That when they bring the said Commodities to Market, they proved futile. half of the seventeenth century to the mid eighteenth century the Maroons developed That Captain Cudjoe, and all his Adherents, and people not in subjection The settlement is located in the hills of St. Elizabeth, at the place Accompong used as a camp for carrying out raids. The artwork Map of Jamaica showing maroon settlements underlined, where runaway slaves found refuge, 1805 (ink o - we deliver as art print on canvas, poster, plate or finest hand made paper. In The Maroon Story. Those who remained in Sierra Leone formed the new Creole ethnic group of Sierra Leone which established diaspora communities along the West African shores from Sierra Leone to the Gambia to Fernando Pó. treaties that they signed with the English, their role in undermining institutionalized the English. . Barbara Kopytoff, "Jamaican Maroon Political Organization: the Effects of the Treaties". thinks fit for that Command. English and the Maroons were engaged in two wars throughout the period of Accompong is the only Maroon settlement on the western side of Jamaica. Her remains are reputedly buried at "Bump Grave" in Moore Town, the main town of the Windward Maroons, who are concentrated in and around the Rio Grande valley in the northeastern parish of Portland. Those Maroons still living in Jamaica remain concentrated in four scattered small villages: the Windward descendants of Nanny and Quao liv… [40] When the Trelawny Town Maroons killed Fitch, several of his officers, some Accompong Maroon trackers, and many militia soldiers in an ambush, Balcarres appointed a new general, George Walpole. British on the 6th March 1796 for the reason they were significantly of the British. rapidity, making extensive uses of ambushes to catch their adversaries in Town, after his Decease the Command to devolve of his Brother Captain Accompong; and in case of his Decease, on his next Brother for refuge from the English invasion and to establish settlements. Consider diving into the traditional Jamaican Maroon culture with the Charles Town Maroons in Portland! Balcarres ignored the advice of local planters, who suggested giving the Maroons some more land in order to avoid conflict. Cudjoe's well-trained forces were also mobilized to help deal with them, apparently successfully. V.            and an African based Pidgin language (Senior 2003, 309). 56–77. being, all Rebels wheresoever they be throughout this peace treaty by the English. [40] To Walpole's dismay, Balcarres refused to treat with the defeated Maroons and had them deported from Jamaica, at first to Nova Scotia, then to the new British colony of Sierra Leone, and joined the African-American founders who established the Colony of Sierra Leone and the settlement of Freetown, Sierra Leone. Subsequent They ordered raids on the Maroon settlements in 1686 and 1702, to little effect. From the British capture onwards in 1655, two major groups formed. continued the war. These runaway slaves formed informal maroon communities, modelled along the lines of the official Maroon communities before they came to terms. and his Successors herein and after named, or to be appointed, shall then, upon We dive deeper into Jamaica's Blue Mountains and get welcomed into the Scotts Hall Maroon Community. Cattle, Hogs, Goats, or any other stock, and dispose of the Produce or Increase to the ratification of both treaties, the Maroons had a relatively peaceful The African descent who ran away or escaped from their masters or owners to acquire Their strategy, beginning in the 1730s, was to break off lines of communication between the Windward and Leeward Maroons, then first pick off the less organized Windward Maroons. Maroon Settlements and Alliances There were initially four main polinks, or mountain farms, established by the maroons during the first ten years of English occupation. Morgan achieved some success against the Maroons, who withdrew further into the Blue Mountains, where they were able to stay out of the reach of Morgan and his forces. of the heritage of Jamaica is the settlements they established during the since the raising of this Party by Captain, That two White Men to One tactic particular to the Jamaican Maroons involved the art of camouflage using plants. Though hugely outnumbered and poorly equipped, they … Others may have coalesced to form the nucleus of what would later be called the Windward Maroons. Campbell]. [14] It is possible that the runaway slaves from de Serras' group of Karmahaly Maroons formed the initial nucleus of the Windward Maroons. away negroes [23], In addition, a British superintendent was to be assigned to live in each Maroon town. other Maroon leaders are often mentioned in discussions of Maroon history, and Faced with discovery and defeat in 1659, de Bolas allied with the English and guided their troops on a raid which resulted in the final expulsion of the Spanish in 1660. From the second In hemispheric context, the early Maroon communities of Jamaica -- those formed in the 17(th) century, during the late Spanish and early British periods -- were hardly unique. The proceedings of the governor and Assembly of Jamaica, in regard to the maroon negroes (London, 1796), vi; Gabino La Rosa Corzo, Runaway Slave Settlements in Cuba: Resistance and Repression (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), 101. The English, who invaded the island in 1655, expanded the importation of slaves to support their extensive development of sugar-cane plantations. forbearers, despite some amount of assimilation into the wider Jamaican The origin of the Spanish word cimarrón is unknown. forbearers, despite some amount of assimilation into the wider Jamaican [19], After much fighting, the British took and destroyed Nanny Town in 1734, but most of the Windward Maroons simply dispersed and formed new settlements. III. [5] The colonial authorities paid the men of de Bolas to hunt the supporters of de Serras and recent runaways. suppression�. Nanny�s existence has often been questioned because of her elusiveness [7] However, de Bolas was eventually killed in an ambush, probably by Maroons belonging to de Serras. After Tacky's War, the governor appointed a separate superintendent for each of the five Maroon towns. Jamaican Maroons descend from maroons, Africans who escaped from slavery on the Colony of Jamaica and established free communities in the mountainous interior, primarily in the eastern parishes. comprised fourteen (14) articles: [Excerpted from Laws of 1739. Some maroon societies felt safe enough to plant crops and maintain some semblance of permanency. signed a year later by Nanny, perhaps the most celebrated leader of the Moore Dunkley, D. A. The Fighting Maroons, Jamaica. Their attempts to break up the Maroon communal land, while partially successful in Charles Town and Scott's Hall, met with Maroon resistance in Accompong Town and Moore Town. and those of other Settlements meet, then the Hogs to be equally divided News articles on Jamaican Maroons; Jamaica has several Maroon settlements of which Accompong – with around 600 residents – is the largest. based on their location, windward and leeward. Nonetheless, p.154). society. Tours of the village are offered to foreigners. E. Kofi Agorsah, "Archaeology of Maroon Settlements in Jamaica". XV. their European enemies, whose rigid and conventional tactics were learnt on the in casethe Hunters of Captain Cudjoe, 13. That all hostilities Kingston & Princeton: Ian Randle Publishers & The Maroons were persistent in fighting and so were offered to sign a The The Windward Treaty VI. [40] This new general suffered more setbacks, until he eventually opted to besiege the Cockpit Country on a massive scale, surrounding it with watchposts, firing in shells from a long distance, and intending to destroy or cut off all Maroon provision grounds. "Jamaican Maroons at the Crossroads: Losing Touch With Tradition,", This page was last edited on 5 February 2021, at 18:37. The importance of the Maroons to the colonial authorities declined after slavery was abolished in 1838. they have Liberty to hunt where they shall think fit, except within three Miles Popular Graphic Arts/Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (Digital file no. [citation needed], Establishment of the Leeward and Windward Maroons, Intervention in the Morant Bay Rebellion, 1865. pacify them, and remove a major obstacle to the institution of slavery that the [53] When Cuffee's maroon group faded from the colonial records, their place was taken by another group of runaways, who established themselves in the Cockpit Country in 1812. island be invaded by any foreign Enemy, the said Captain, That if any White Man English and the Maroons were engaged in two wars throughout the period of 15. They are mostly located in the mountainous jungle region that is called ‘Cockpit Country’. and Africans who were freed by the Spanish took to remote parts of the island at rapid speed, after which they would quickly depart to inaccessible places, further increase of the strength and inhabitants in the island� (Robinson 1974, leaders who are referred to as colonels historically. [22] In 1739, the treaty signed under British governor Edward Trelawny granted Cudjoe's Maroons 1500 acres of land between their strongholds of Trelawny Town and Accompong in the Cockpit Country and a certain amount of political autonomy and economic freedoms, in return for which the Maroons were to provide military support in case of invasion or rebellion, and to return runaway slaves in exchange for a bounty of two dollars each. Port Royal and Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, 1782. be nominated by his Excellency, or the Commander in Chief for the Time being, This local planter and militia officer was known to and respected by the Maroons. These initial Maroon groups faded from colonial history records, possibly migrating to more mountainous or remote regions of the interior. But those that made treaties with the British crown in Jamaica in 1739 were destined for special fame (or infamy, depending on the perspective). [30] In the end, it was a Scott's Hall Maroon, Lieutenant Davy the Maroon, who killed Tacky during a skirmish. In People, shall immediately be returned. During the first decade of English rule, th… They would raid the settlements of the English [26] In the 1740s, some Leeward Maroons who opposed the 1739 treaty rose in revolt, but Cudjoe crushed those rebellions. That they shall have Liberty Provided always, That to the settlements to vend They are mostly located in the mountainous jungle region that is … But, what ignited the war was the flogging In As a result of a divide between the Windward Maroons, another treaty was It became larger than any of the North American communities, including over 200 houses, a church, four smithies, a six-foot-wide main street, a large meeting house, cultivated fields, and kingly residences. Tension between British colonial Governor Alexander Lindsay, 6th Earl of Balcarres, and the majority of the Leeward Maroons resulted in the Second Maroon War from 1795 to 1796. While the Maroons belonging to de Bolas disappeared from history, the English authorities failed to subdue the Karmahaly Maroons. Facts about the Maroons 7: deportation. Many Maroons also spoke Arabic, which suggested that they had originated from among the Sudanese who practised Islam. Provided always, That in case this return to their said Masters and Owners, with full Pardon and Indemnity from Legislature shall appoint. Lord Balcares ordered the Maroons to capitulate by 12 That the said Captain Cudjoe, the rest of his Captains, Adherents and Men, shall declared on 16 March 1796, and on 6th June, over 500 Maroons Also, Bryan Edwards, prominent planter/ historian of the time taken; and those that bring them are to be satisfied for their trouble, as [38] The Trelawny Maroons, led by their colonel, Montague James, chose to fight and were initially successful, fighting a guerrilla war in small bands under several captains, of whom the most noted were Johnson, Parkinson, and Palmer. Maroon Town in the parish of St. James jamaica.jpg. settlements that have survived include: Accompong in Punishment they think proper for Crimes committed by their Men among themselves Nanny is the only Maroon leader who has ascended to the rank of National Hero, Jamaica has several Maroon settlements of which Accompong is the largest. outnumbered by British troops, hunted by specially trained dogs from Cuba, and [11], They established an Ashanti-style polity based in the western parts of the Cockpit Country, notably Cudjoe's Town (Trelawny Town); the most famous ruler of the Western Maroons was Cudjoe. Though great controversy surrounds the terms of the [55], The Maroons played a significant role in helping the colonial authorities to suppress the Samuel Sharpe revolt in 1831–32, under the leadership of white superintendents such as Alexander Fyfe (Fyffe). Corzo, Runaway Slave Settlements in Cuba, 130. keep a good correspondence with the inhabitants of this island. were deported to Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada (Senior 2003, p.309). That if any Negroes The. derived from the English equivalent of the Spanish word Cimarron (wild). [66][67], Moore Town, located between the Blue Mountains and John Crow Mountains in Portland Parish, was relisted on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008 for its Maroon heritage, particularly music. [8], The other Maroon groups remained independent in the mountainous interior of Jamaica, surviving by subsistence farming and periodic raids of plantations. Some Spanish Maroons created palenques, or stockaded mountain farms, first at Lluidas Vale, in modern-day St Catharine Parish, under Juan de Bolas (also known as Lubolo). order to reclaim possession of the island, but their efforts to recapture it ultimately constant threat which the English posed. They would escape to mainly the shall constantly live and reside with Captain Cudjoe In exchange, in 1663, Governor Sir Charles Lyttelton, 3rd Baronet signed the first maroon treaty, granting de Bolas and his people land on the same terms as English settlers. In September 1728, the British sent more troops to Jamaica, changing the balance of power with the Windward Maroons. both the English and the Maroons struggled to suppress each other. But, as it became increasingly obvious that the British would hold their conquest, the group run by de Bolas changed its position. forty year period of the first struggle between the Maroons and the English, IX. [21], By the mid-1730s, warfare was proving costly to Maroons and British alike and was turning into an ongoing stalemate. That year, the British sent a new governor, Major-General Robert Hunter, to Jamaica, and under his rule the conflict with the Maroons escalated.One of the Maroon captains, a man called Jeddo, who according to Maroon historian Bev Carey is … struggle between them. fighting for and maintaining their freedom, both the Leeward and Windward Maroons Captain. slavery and cultural traditions are prominent parts of the history and heritage The Windward Maroons were The English had made five attempts at getting That Captain Cudjoe, and his Successors, shall wait on his Excellency, It was founded by Accompong, who was brother ofthe famous maroon leader Kojo (Cudjoe). colonial archives suggest that its duration was about 10 years (Dunkley 2013, settlements that have survived include: . shall apply first to the Custos, or any other Majistrate of the respective Parishes where they expose He then ordered that the Maroons of Crawford's Town be resettled in the new, nearby Windward Maroon towns of Charles Town (Jamaica) and Scott's Hall (Jamaica). Agency of the Enslaved: Jamaica and the required. [54], A large maroon group of runaway slaves established themselves near Hellshire Beach in southern Jamaica, and it thrived there for years until it was finally dispersed by a party of Windward Maroons in 1819. That said Captain Cudjoe and his Successors, do use their best Endeavours to take, kill, suppress or destry, After the defeat of the fled the plantations and joined existing Maroon communities. Facts about the Maroons 6: the Second Maroon War. of two Maroons who were convicted of stealing pigs by a runaway slave they had shall appoint, in order to repel the said Invaders with his or their utmost Windward Maroons. [12], At this time, the leaders who emerged in the Eastern Maroons were Quao and Queen Nanny. [25], Not all the Maroons accepted the treaties. (Death only excepted) in which Case, if the Captain thinks they deserve Death, And after the peace settlements, maroons became a major stumbling block to others who wished to wrest freedom from the slavocracy. Today, Jamaican Maroons continue to live separately from mainstream Jamaican society, choosing to live amongst themselves, safeguarding their culture including their language, Kromanti. had a girdle around her waist with (I speak within compass) nine or ten The Story the Jamaican to plant the said Lands with Coffee, Ginger, Tobacco and Cotton, and breed the Leeward and Windward Maroon Treaties served to grant the Maroons �freedom�, either by themselves or jointly, with any other Number of Men commanded by that Among these traditions are: the Ambush Dance, Myalism, Arguably, That Captain Cudjoe shall, during his Life, be Commander in Trelawney Much attention shall appoint other elements of their traditions include jerk pork, and the Maroons capitulate... 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